Course Schedule

Pumps, Compressors & Turbines: Operation, Maintenance & Troubleshooting

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COURSE OVERVIEW

Oil and Gas treatment processes require specialized equipment to provide the energy to move large quantities of the liquids and gases through piping and pipelines designed for those purposes. This movement occurs from the oil and gas fields through refining and processing plants, and onwards to the storage and sales points. The equipment used for to move the fluids are termed rotating equipment. These types of equipment are used extensively and provide an increase in pressure for both liquid and gas streams to enable the passage of fluids to the required destination.

This training course will introduce delegates to different types of pumps, compressors, turbines and their associated equipment, such as bearings, seals, filters, separators, etc. The focus in this training course will be on the start-up and operation of these machines and their optimal diagnostics and troubleshooting techniques.

The training course will also enhance the technical knowledge of the operation and maintenance staff to build confidence level in start-up, follow-up, shut down and troubleshooting. The course defines the systems and subsystems that form the turbine, the potential problems with these systems and subsystems, monitoring techniques for early detection of problems, and methods to analyze the monitored variables to detect potential problems or reconstruct reasons for failures.

This training course will also cover the efficient and trouble-free operation of pumps, compressors, and turbines along with their ability to control the main operational parameters and will include an emphasis on physical principles and clear technical reasoning. Case studies are used throughout the course.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Attendance at the Pumps, Compressors and Turbines training course will enable participants to:

  • familiarize with the fundamentals of pumps, compressors and gas turbines
  • understand the principles of pump, compressor, and gas turbine theory of operations
  • understand different types of pumps, compressors and gas turbines
  • explain the functions and principles of operation of each of the major components of these machines and systems components
  • monitor pump, compressor and gas turbine reliability, availability and cost-effectiveness
  • know how to measure and control of performance and efficiency of these machines
  • understand the principles of pump, compressor, and gas turbine start-up procedures and to introduce standard operating procedures for the package
  • know the procedure of how to maintain and inspect the pumps, compressor and gas turbine to improve skills in executing activities in a safe and right manner
  • know how to inspect and diagnose the root cause of the problems
  • learn troubleshooting techniques for operational problems of pumps, compressors and gas turbines
  • define gas turbine engine
  • understand the GT thermodynamic cycle and engine theory
  • identify gas turbine parts
  • know the function of major package components
  • demonstrate the support and auxiliary systems
  • classify the different types of compressors
  • study the different types of combustion chamber and turbines
  • learn the recommended operating procedures
  • develop skills in troubleshooting
  • acquire knowledge of repair, inspection, and diagnosis
  • explore systems maintenance procedures
  • follow-up key performance variables and means to monitor
  • Evaluate turbine performance parameters during start-up and normal operation
  • Analyze common turbine problems, such as vibration, temp/pressure operation, and surge

TARGET AUDIENCE

The Pumps, Compressors and Turbines training course is designed to benefit all levels of Technical Personnel in the oil and gas industry as well as in chemical and process industries but will greatly benefit:

  • Engineering Personnel
  • Technical Personnel in Charge of Operations and Maintenance
  • Maintenance and Operation Engineers
  • Supervisors
  • Operators

TRAINING METHODOLOGY

The Pumps, Compressors and Turbines training course will utilize a variety of proven learning techniques to ensure maximum understanding, comprehension and retention of the information presented. This includes a lecture with active delegate participation including discussions, real-life problems, and case studies.

Through an active participation in the group work and class discussions, the delegates will get a lot of opportunities to increase their experience and knowledge of techniques available for equipment troubleshooting.

Pre & Post course assessments will be used to measure the effectiveness of this training.

COURSE CONTENTS

DAY 1

  • KeyTopics:
    Pump Introduction

    • Hydraulics – A Few Basics
    • Vapor Pressure
    • Pump Classification
    • Centrifugal Pump Basics
    • Principle of Operation,
    • Pump Classifications
    • Mixed Flow Pumps
    • Axial Flow Pumps
    • Low-pressure & High-pressure pumps
    • Single-suction & Double-suction pumps
    • Single-stage and Multi-stage pumps
    • Volute & Diffuser pumps
    • Closed impeller, open, impeller or Semi-open impeller
    • Casing Construction (Radially Split, Axially Split, Double Casing)
    • Impeller Shrouds (Open, Partially Open, Closed)
    • Shaft Position (Horizontal, Vertical)
    • Wear Ring Running Clearances
    • Pump Bearings
    • Antifriction bearings
    • Journal bearings
    • Range of applications
    • Lubrication of bearings

DAY 2 – Effective Communication with Customers

  • KeyTopics:
    Pumps Operation Procedures

    • Operating conditions
    • Pump curve against piping system curve
    • System curve calculation
    • NPSH available and required
    • Suction system configurations
    • NPSH measurement
    • Normal operating range
    • Best operating condition
    • The minimum flow rate limit
    • The maximum capacity limit
    • Off-design operation
    • Operation difficulties

     

    Pump Troubleshooting

    • Pump Installation, Startup and Operation Guidelines
    • Pump Inspection and Performance Control
    • Pump Maintenance Based on Daily Observations of Pump Operation,
    • Diagnoses of Pump Troubles and Records of Inspections and Repairs
    • Control of Lubrication System
    • Mechanical Seals, Bearings and Couplings
    • Vibration Control and Analysis
    • Cavitation in pumps
    • Net Positive Suction Head
      • Available against required NPSH
      • Symptoms of cavitation
      • Effects of Cavitations
      • Avoidance of cavitation
    • Water Hammer Problems and Troubleshooting
    • General Troubleshooting Checklist
    • Shaft deflection
      • Critical speed and shaft deflection
      • Parameters affecting shaft deflection
      • Effects of shaft deflection on Mechanical seals and Bearings

    Failure or Deviation Symptoms

    • Pump does not deliver
    • Insufficient capacity delivered
    • Insufficient discharge pressure developed
    • Pump loses prime after starting
    • Pump requires excessive power
    • Stuffing box / mechanical seal leak excessively
    • Packing / mechanical seal has short life
    • Pump vibrates or noisy
    • Bearing have short life
    • Pump overheats and seizes

    Introduction to Compressors

    • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • Compressor Types and Applications
    • Introduction to the compressor types
    • How a centrifugal compressor works
    • How a positive displacement compressor works
    • Different between dynamic and positive displacement compressor
    • How screw compressor works

DAY 3 – Handling Customer Complaints

  • KeyTopics:
    Centrifugal Compressor Configurations and Components

    • Casing Configuration
    • Horizontally Split Compressor Casings
    • Vertically Split Compressor Casings
    • Axially vs. Radially Split
    • Compressor Impellers
    • Impeller Arrangements on Compressor Shafts
    • Impeller Thrust
    • Balance piston
    • Diffusers
    • Diaphragms
    • Compressor Bearings
    • Radial Bearings
    • Thrust Bearings
    • Compressor seals (Labyrinths, carbon rings, liquid films and dry gas seals)
    • Dry Gas Seals and Support Systems:
    • Comparison of Dry Gas Versus Wet Sealing Systems
    • Principles of Dry Gas Seals and Construction Features

    Centrifugal Compressor Control

    • Performance Characteristics
    • The performance curves
    • Limits of operating speed: First and second critical speed
    • Effect of speed variation
    • Effect of inlet conditions
    • Effect of gas molecular weight
    • Performance of different types of compressors
    • Limits of flow rates: Surge line and stonewall line
    • Surge and Surge Control
    • Stonewall
    • Off-design Operation
    • Vibration control system
    • Alarm and trip system

DAY 4 - Setting and Managing Customer Expectations

  • KeyTopics:
    Centrifugal Compressor Operation

    • Compressor start-up and shut down.
    • Speed limits.
    • Required speed calculations
    • System Resistance
    • Inlet conditions Effects
    • Parallel and series operation

    Centrifugal Compressor Troubleshooting

    • Guidelines for trouble-free centrifugal compressor operation
    • Examples from recent failure incidents attributed to design defects, processing and manufacturing deficiencies, assembly errors, off-design or unintended service conditions, maintenance deficiencies, etc.
    • Liquid Entrainment
    • Compressor fouling
    • Cleaning Centrifugal Compressors
    • Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational speeds
    • Performance degradation
    • Excessive vibration

    Gas Turbine Basics and introduction

    • What’s the gas turbine?
    • Historic tips on gas turbines invention
    • Brayton thermodynamic cycle
    • Gas turbine as a continuous ICE
    • Advantages and disadvantages of a gas turbine over a diesel engine
    • Categories of gas turbines
    • Main factors affecting gas turbine performance
    • General package description
    • Core engine main components
    • Engine support systems
    • Turbine Ancillary components

     Core Engine Components

     Axial air compressor

    •  Principle of operation of axial flow compressors
    • Characteristics of axial flow compressor
    • Compressor definition and function
    • Axial flow compressor performance
    • Stall and bleed valve
    • Compressor washing 

DAY 5 – Development Plan for Improving Service

  • KeyTopics:
    Air inlet system

    • Air filter
    • Inlet air conditioning system
    • Primary and secondary air

     Combustion chamber

    • Combustion process
    • Combustion chamber construction and design
    • Combustor arrangements (tubular, can annular & annular)
    • Combustor chamber performance
    • Combustor components

    Turbine stages and Exhaust

    • Gas turbine configuration
    • Blades arrangement and design
    • High pressure and power turbines
    • Turbine nozzles and blades cooling
    • Exhaust duct

    Engine support systems

    • Starting system
    • Lube oil system
    • Fuel system
    • Control and monitoring system

    Turbine Ancillary components

    • Acoustic enclosure
    • Coupling
    • Battery Charger
    • Gas and flame detectors
    • Firefighting system

    Gas Turbine Operation and follow-up

    • Pre-start preparation
    • Start up procedures
    • Steady state operation follow-up
    • Performance evaluation
    • Shut down types and procedures
    • Alarms investigation

    Gas Turbine Troubleshooting

    • Simplified troubleshooting flow chart
    • Main troubles possible causes

    Gas Turbine Inspection and Overhaul

    • Maintenance definition and policies
    • Preventive maintenance PM program
    • Condition monitoring and diagnosis
    • Predictive maintenance PdM program (oil analysis, vibration analysis, boroscope inspection)

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